A Review on Bovine Babesiosis in Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


Parasitology Dept.,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Damanhour University.


Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease of cattle. It is caused by intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally humans. Several species of the genus Babesia are involved, with the two most important species in cattle; are B. bigemina and B. bovis that are mainly transmitted by ticks through the transovarial route. The disease causes severe economic losses in the cattle industry, mainly associated with the reduction in the production rate and high mortalities. The disease prevails in tropical and sub-tropical areas where overlapping with the vector, one-host tick of Boophilus species, exist. Subclinical babesiosis leads to conversion of the affected livestock to chronic carriers, producing a persistent source of infection for tick vectors, and maintaining the natural transmission of the disease. Active disease cases are commonly diagnosed with the traditional geimsa-stained blood smears, although more advanced diagnosis techniques exist including, but not limited to, the molecular and serological methods. The disease is optimally controlled through treatment of affected animals, and prevention of the disease dissemination by eradicating vector ticks. This review, focused on all aspects of the disease from the historical perspectives, biology of the parasite, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical signs, vector transmitters, diagnosis, prevention and control.