Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of apigenin and gallic acid on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, El-Behera Egypt


 Apigenin and gallic acid are naturally occurring plant flavonoids. They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimalarial activities. In this study, the restrictive properties of Apigenin and gallic acid were evaluated against two Babesia species and Theileria equi in vitro.  Apigenin was evaluated against B. microti in mice. Apigenin showed significant growth inhibition for Babesia bovis, Babesia caballi, and Theileria equi with IC50 values of 125 µM, 60 µM, and 0.08 µM, respectively. IC50 values of gallic acid were 30, 30, and 4.5 µM for Babesia bovis, Babesia caballi, and Theileria equi, respectively.  Apigenin at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg resulted in a 65 % restriction of Babesia microti progression in BALB/c mice. Apigenin may be a promising drug therapy in bovine and equine piroplasmosis.